June 18, 2020

A Closer Look at T Waves and Action Potentials – Introductory Level

This ECG was chosen randomly from my ECG collection. Here is the infamous “Normal sinus rhythm; Normal ECG” that we see so frequently. Today, we are […]
May 1, 2020

Understanding Action Potentials for the Introductory to Intermediate Levels

Anyone who wishes to interpret ECGs at an advanced level must know some of the physiology and anatomy of the heart. This helps us to understand […]
January 10, 2020

The Phenomenal Hexaxial Reference Grid

The Hexaxial Reference Grid Using It to Decipher Complex ECGs This diagram incorporates all six of the limb Leads for the purpose of understanding the vectors […]
March 3, 2019

Systolic and Diastolic Currents of Injury

In Figure 1 above, the action potential of normal myocardium is represented by the solid lines and the action potential of the ischemic myocardial area is […]
January 30, 2019

Why Am I Giving Calcium for Hyperkalemia?

If you are reading this monograph, it’s perhaps because you have had to manage a patient with a dangerously high potassium level – possibly on several […]